Friday, January 31, 2020
Operation Iraqi Free
Operation Iraqi Freedom Essay The relationship between the United States and Iraq has been a rather complicated relationship. This relationship can be classified as a roller coaster ride that last through out history. The United States and Iraq relationship became rocky in 1958 when King Faisal was overthrown and Iraq signed with the Soviet Union. Because of the relationship that the United States had with the Soviet Union this made Iraq and the United States relationship a little questionable. In 1967 Iraq broke all ties with the United States when they decided to join ranks in the protest of the United States and Israeli strategic alliance. This decision that the Iraqi made once a country we were allies to a country we do not trust but we will deal with, a country that became a server threat to the United States. However, when Iraq needed us to help them stand against Iran, the United States was there. Regardless of how shady the relationship was with Iraq, the United States saw Iran to be more of a threat then Iraq. Prior to this the United States had removed Iraq from the State Department list of state that sponsors terrorism. The United States did all this in hope of a closer relationship with Baghdad, Iraq. This step the United States made to get closer to Baghdad is what opened the door for the United States to have access to Iraq. By November 1984, the relationship between the United States and Iraq had been at full diplomatic. Needless to say, the United States did not full trust Iraq but did not see them as a serious threat. Iraq continuously showed the United States that they could not be trust by committing various acts against the United States in a way that seemed to be unnoticeable. On March 17, 1987, the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s seem to have accidentally hit a United States ship, mistaking it for the USS Shark, this Ã¢â¬Å"mistakenÃ¢â¬ identify caused the like of thirty-nine American sailors. As if that was not enough, in June 1982 the assassination of the IsraelÃ¢â¬â¢s ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, was link to Iraq. The United States, although in what seemed to be a peaceful relationship with Iraq, still believed Iraq to be a sponsor of terrorism. The United Stated did remove Iraq from the list, however it was not necessarily done because of belief that Iraq was not sponsoring terrorist but it was done in the exchanged for expulsion of Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal. The United States did not doubt that Baghdad was sponsoring terrorist, and the United States was completely right in their thinking. In 1985, Iraq shelter terrorist that was involved in the hijacking of the Achjille Lauro cruise ship and the murder of the wheelchair-bound United States citizen Leon Klinghoffer. Also two terrorist that had planned an attack was held in Rome on their way to the United States. Yet still the United States did not see Saddam Hussein and his regime as a serious threat. Prior to Desert Shield and Desert Storm, Iraq had destroyed the Iranians in April-July 1988 and the United State quickly disengages with Iraq. The overthrow of Iran brought power to Saddam Hussein and his regime that was not there prior to the Iran-Iraq war. During the war Kuwait allow Iraq to borrow seventeen billion dollars, but instead of Saddam Hussein paying it back like Iraq agreed to, he decide to tell Kuwait to right it of because they owned Iraq for protecting them from Iran. Iraq since 1961, when the British ended itÃ¢â¬â¢s protectorate in Kuwait, it was then that the Iraqi government claimed Kuwait was an Ã¢â¬Å"integral part of IraqÃ¢â¬ (6). If it was not for Britain, Saddam Hussein would have taken over Kuwait in July 1961, so Iraq has had the idea of controlling Kuwait for quit some time, therefore the idea of Kuwait being in debt to Iraq for protecting Ã¢â¬Å"KuwaitÃ¢â¬ was just a way that Saddam Hussein was using to cause Kuwait to surrender to him. The United States was ready for the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, so ready that the military was playing war games to train for it and in the middle of training the United States started to see the Armed Forces war games play out in real life. On August 2, 1990 Iraq started to make their move to attack Kuwait. IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s war plan was to kill the royal family or Kuwait, in so they attacked reclaim royal palaces and the Dasman Places. On that same day by eight oÃ¢â¬â¢clock that morning Iraq had completely invaded Kuwait City, however the Kuwait royal family was able to escape due to the Emiri Guard delaying actions. This invasion on Kuwait allowed Saddam Hussein to have control or five percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s production and 19.6 percent of proven global reserves (10). As a result of this attack and take over of Kuwait, Iraq was in serious challenge to the 1980 Carter Doctrine that said, Ã¢â¬Å"any attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America. And such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military forceÃ¢â¬ (10). The Kuwait attack is the reason that the relationship between Iraq and the United States went bad, clearly the relationship was unstable from the beginning, and Saddam Hussein had proven time and time again that he could not be trusted so no one wanted to trust him with so much control over the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil. This invasion of Iraq on Kuwait was the start of the building of Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert Shield officially started on August 7th 1990 when United State aircraft started to arrive in the Gulf. The mission of the United States was to go in a liberate Kuwait, and their plan in doing so was to attack the Iraqi Army along the boarders of Kuwait and Iraq. In this attack it would deliberately keep the pressure up all through the night allowing the United Stated to by time on the Ã¢â¬Å"Time-on-TargetÃ¢â¬ (14). Operation D3esert Shield was known as D-Day, This plan where complete on August 20th, and some of the other plans were for United States aircraft making and Ã¢â¬Å"hard initial thrustÃ¢â¬ against the Iraqi forces for the first seven hours the invasion. Also the plans that the United States had was to provision for land-based aircraft to relocate while the aircraft carriers USS Eisenhower and Independence (14). Operation Desert Shield lasted until October allowing all the aircraft to take their places and get ready for the start of Operation Desert S torm. Operation Desert Storm began January 17th, 1991, with the same mission to go in and set Kuwait free, for their royal family was working as custodians of IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s holist shrines, Makkah and Medina. The first weapon that was launch in Operation Desert Storm the TLAM that came from the Red Sea headed towards Baghdad. However it was not the first to hit anything, the Hellfire missile was the first to make an impact causing a gap in the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance radar and the boarders of Saudi Arabia. It also had many more successful hits. Operation Desert Storm lasted forty-three days before the United States. February 7th, 1991, the United States was jointed by Joint Special Operation Task Force with the British. The DIA claim that only sixty Scuds was destroyed and most appeared to be ones of commercial articulate. On the 30th of January there were a number of Jordanian trucks that was hit and destroyed. The Unite States has did not claim collateral damage until 1992(67). During Operation Desert Storm on January 30. There was major collateral damage when the United States tried to hit Tigris Bridge and by mistake hit the Iraq Central Bank. Things may look to have gone perfect but a lot of the outside, but the United States there were a lot mistakes that was made. On February 25th 1990 this was the day the ground war took place, this day is known as G-Day. The day before, February 24th, the marine forces and two Islamic corps began diversionary attacks into the Saddam Line. The XVIII Corps launched a deep thrust towards Highway eight, and by the end of the day marine and Islamic forces had breached the Saddam Line and air mobile XVIII Corps forces had established forward operating base, known to this day as FOB, Cobra more then 280 kilometers inside the Iraqi boarders. This was known an Operation Desert Saber. During the ground war there were steps taken to ensure that the possibility of fratricide would be lower. The first step was related specifically to friendly fir between ground units. In order to do this GPS equipped units had to ensure that they were correctly aligned with their unit boundaries and were not moving or shooting over those boundaries. Secondly, Coalition units sacrificed precious seconds to ensure positive identification of targets, sometimes pausing six to ten seconds to be sure it was the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s or allowing them to get close enough to get a clear visual identifying it was the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s(105). On February 1991, Kuwait was completely set free, and although Operation Desert Storm only last a short time, the conflict with Iraq had never can to an end. Many things went on between the United States and cease fire that take place on March 3. Saddam Hussein he was really upset with the United States for innerving with his attempt to take over Kuwait. He was upset that the United States came in a liberated Kuwait from the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s. This rescue mission was not just about free Kuwait but it was also about, taking away the power Saddam Hussein had gained room to take over in Iraq No one wanted to see a man who had proven too many countries time and time again that he is a man that can not be trusted at all . The time after Operational Desert Storm until the Operation Iraqi Freedom, was not a peaceful journey for the United States. Because of Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s angry with the United States; the United States has suffered many attacks from Iraq. After the war the United States came in control of the airspace over the boarder of Saudi Arabia. This area was continually attacked by Saddam Hussein in this area. In September 1990, United States Air Force Brig. Gen. Bustert Glosson remains in the Saudi Arabia area to take command of the Special Planning Group that had developed a new integration of Instant Thunder which is now known as Offensive Campaign-Phase One. The mission of Instant Thunder Phase One was to reduce the strength of IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s deviations and there should be no diversion of air strikes against fielded armed force. The Saddam Hussein regime, the Baathist, the one that would give the most trouble was \ after Operation Desert Storm in March 1990 went from it survival tactics to becoming a resistant regime. From July 23, 1992, the IraqiÃ¢â¬â¢s began to launch air attacks and continued to increase between the months of April and August, showcasing Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of action. It was during this time that the United States, Bush distraction formed the Ã¢â¬Å"no-fly zoneÃ¢â¬ Every since both of the no-fly zone in both the north, formed April 1991 and the south, formed in August 1992, was formed Saddam Hussein main goal had been to shoot down a United States aircraft using a mix of aerial and SAM forces(131). During this time Saddam Hussein was building his forces and he began to fly his aircraft in the no-fly zone, on January 6, 1993 Present Bush gave Iraq forty-eight hours to remove there aircrafts from the no-fly zone, Iraq to back away and removed their SAM from the area. However Saddam sent unarmed men into the United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ zone to recover an aircraft that was lost in Desert Storm. The HY-2 Silkworm was no longer theirs it was suppose to go to Kuwait, this breach into the zone that separated Iraq from Kuwait is was started the first war between Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The first attack on Iraq since Operation Desert Storm was Operation Provide Comfort. One of the mistakes of Operation Provide Comfort is it was unsuccessful because the United States decided to attack anyway with out being able to visional see the target. On January 11th and 12th the weather was bad and they were unable to see but because they were running out of time, the United States attacked anyway on January 12th. Once the United States was able to see what targets was hit, they quickly learned that it was a bad mission, out of the thirty-three targets only sixteen had been hit. On August 31st, an Iraqi armored spearhead thrust northward into the Green Lines and this action cause once again another attack on Iraq, Operation Desert Strike. From this point there have been countless attacks on Iraq due to Saddam HusseinÃ¢â¬â¢s many attempts to destroy the United States. Saddam Hussein has attack many of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ U-2Ã¢â¬â¢s that were guarding the no-fly zone that he continually violated. Operation Desert Thunder I, II, and IV was all organized because Iraq kept violating the no-fly zone rules. However Saddam Hussein had a stagy known as Ã¢â¬Å"cheat and retreat.Ã¢â¬ By this time the UN had set up inspections throughout Iraq in search of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) On many occasion Saddam Hussein would deny the inspectors access to certain places then when the United States were about to take action Saddam Hussein would retreat and back down. Saddam Hussein had used the cheat and retreat tactic so much that finally the Clinton administration took action and Operation Desert Fox took place. Because of so many times that Iraq would back down once the United States had spent money to deploy troops, the United States decided to make Operation Desert Fox a surprise by not deploying any more troops in the area only using the troops that was already in theater. This Operation started on December 18-19 as a successful mission; however things did not go all well because the United States received the wrong information about the where about of Saddam Hussein and his family. The United States was told that Saddam and his family would be at one of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s places, Dora, but it was empty and had been for sometime. There were many other events that lead up to Operation Iraqi Freedom, but what push the limit for the United States was the events that took place on September 11. 2001 at 0730 Baghdad time a Predator was lost while flying a reconnaissance mission, making it the second to be lost in a few weeks time the first was shoot down. Also on this day nine hours later the first plane hit the north tower of the World Trade Center. The U.S. had enough of Iraq, all the trouble they have had with Iraq, the hit of the tower, on the U.S. soil was a wake up call. So on March 21 Operation Iraqi Freedom began. After Operation Iraqi Freedom, the relationship between the U.S. and Iraq seems to be at better standing and once again with the destroying of SaddamÃ¢â¬â¢s regime and the capture and execution of Saddam Iraq seems to be on good terms with the United States and now seems to be working for the same goal.